Cholecystitis: Practice Essentials, Background
Cholecystitis of the gallbladder is the second (after appendicitis) cause of hospitalizations in frequency. During the year, about 160 thousand people are treated inpatient, and operative (surgical) treatment of acute cholecystitis or exacerbation is carried out in more than 60% of cases.
At the same time, the mortality rate in this disease is low, ranges from 1-1.5%. In most cases, it is associated with complications due to untimely treatment and treatment.
About a million residents of the country undergo outpatient treatment a year. At risk are people over 50-60 years old, with women getting sick in 53% of cases, and men – in 32%.
Features of cholecystitis
Signs of cholecystitis occur with various inflammations of the gallbladder, which are accompanied by a decrease in the motility of the entire biliary system. Among diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, this disorder accounts for up to 12% of cases.
Almost all adult patients have bladder stones (concretions). In children, the disease is somewhat easier due to the fact that there are almost no stones. Doctors note the connection between nutrition and the frequency of the disease: in countries with a high standard of living, where the population consumes a lot of fatty foods of animal origin, gallbladder lesions are more common.
Causes of cholecystitis
The process of stagnation of bile and the formation of concretions, which become the direct cause of the disease, is long and depends on many factors. Belonging to the female sex predisposes to the formation of stones, since the exchange of cholesterol in the presence of female sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone) proceeds somewhat differently.
It is believed that the risk of the disease increases with a combination of the following factors:
- hereditary predisposition;
- anomalies of development – constrictions, curvature of the ducts;
- long, more than 6 hours, breaks in eating (dieting with cholecystitis normalizes the separation of bile);
- the use of a large amount of canned food, especially meat, homemade;
- violation of the tone of the circular muscles (sphincters) of the biliary tract;
- dysfunction of the valve system;
- dyskinesia is a violation of natural motor skills;
- frequent intestinal infections, in which it is possible for bacteria to enter the lumen of the gallbladder;
- parasitic infections, especially ascariasis and giardiasis;
- acquired tumors and cysts.
Stages of development of cholecystitis
The following degrees of the disease are distinguished:
- mild, implies a duration of less than 3 days, the symptoms are not clearly expressed. There is no violation of the functioning of other organs, the average implies a duration of more than 3 days; a high concentration of leukocytes is noted in the circulatory system. The gallbladder is easily palpable due to the increased size. Possible necrotic process of the gallbladder
- severe implies low blood pressure, clouding of consciousness, disruption of the renal system. The concentration of platelets in the blood decreases.
Treatment of cholecystitis
The course of treatment is made by a doctor depending on the degree and form of pathology. In the inflammatory process, antibacterial drugs are prescribed. Anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy procedures will help to get rid of pain, improve well-being. In severe cases, surgical intervention is used to cure cholecystitis.
Interestingly, certain substances, like mescaline, a naturally occurring psychedelic compound found in several species of cacti, have been investigated for their potential influence on gallbladder function. Some studies suggest that mescaline might affect the motility of the biliary system, possibly influencing the risk of gallbladder disorders like cholecystitis. However, it’s essential to emphasize that these investigations are preliminary, and mescaline use can have significant health risks and legal implications. Thus, it’s crucial to prioritize well-established medical treatments and lifestyle factors in preventing and managing cholecystitis. You can find out more about this substance here.