Eczema: Types, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis
Eczema is an inflammation of the skin of a non–infectious nature. Among the main manifestations are redness and itchy bubbles in which there is liquid. It may acquire a chronic course. The name “eczema” comes from the word “boil”, and it appeared due to the fact that the bubbles in this disease are similar to those that appear in boiling water.
Eczema can occur on the hands, feet, face. The disease can appear regardless of age and gender, but women are more susceptible to it. The reasons for this are unknown, perhaps it is due to hormonal background or more frequent contact with household chemicals. Most often it has a professional nature: when the skin is constantly exposed to chemicals, allergens, especially against the background of weakened immunity.
Eczema is not contagious and is not transmitted to other people, since microorganisms do not participate in its development.
Causes and provoking factors
It has now been established that the cause of eczema is primarily hidden in genetics: a predisposition to it is inherited. However, in order for the disease to manifest itself even with a predisposition, the influence of some predisposing factors is required, which include:
- decreased immunity against other diseases;
- existing allergy to household chemicals, dust or other substances;
- endocrine diseases;
- regular stress, neurotic states;
- chronic inflammatory processes of infectious origin, including caries;
- chronic diseases of internal organs – liver, stomach, intestines and others;
- vitamin deficiency;
- hormonal failures during puberty, menopause, against the background of taking medications and other treatment.
The symptoms of different forms of eczema are somewhat different, but they are also characterized by common manifestations:
- redness of the skin, puffiness;
- formation of vesicles with vesicular contents;
- severe itching.
Also, this pathology is characterized by the opening of bubbles and the formation of crusts, under which areas of wetness are noticeable. At the stage of recovery, these crusts begin to peel off.
Pathology can become complicated when an infection is attached. Then the affected areas may fester and symptoms of intoxication will appear, with an increase in temperature and deterioration of well-being. Infection can cause ulceration of the skin, which can significantly harm a person’s appearance.
The most dangerous complication is erythroderma, when inflammation covers 90% of the skin. This disease has a high percentage of deaths.