Headache: What It Is, Types, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Headache or cephalgia is one of the most common complaints. It can be a symptom of various diseases that require immediate treatment. A person independently tries to drown out the pain with pills, without thinking about the further consequences.

Causes of headache

Headache occurs against the background of the following reasons:

  • neck and head injuries;
  • hormonal failure;
  • constant stressful situations;
  • chronic fatigue;
  • increased weather sensitivity;
  • brain cancer;
  • inflammation of the nerves of the head;
  • infectious diseases;
  • high blood pressure;
  • mental disorders;
  • vascular diseases;
  • meningitis;
  • stroke;
  • the presence of infection.

Sometimes a headache occurs when taking oral contraceptives and foods with a high content of tyramine.


Types of headache, manifestations

There are the following types of headaches:

  • Migraine
  • Tension type pain
  • Horton’s headache
  • Headache caused by infections
  • Sinus headache
  • Headache with increased intracranial pressure
  • Headache caused by a lesion of the trigeminal nerve

Headache Symptoms

Headache can be accompanied by the following main symptoms:

  • blood pressure spikes;
  • vasodilation;
  • heaviness of the lower eyelids;
  • general weakness;
  • slurred speech;
  • vomiting;
  • confusion;
  • muscle pain;
  • feverish condition;
  • mental fatigue.

Diagnostic methods

To identify the cause of the headache, the doctor examines the patient and clarifies the nature, duration and localization of painful sensations. To confirm the diagnosis, electroencephalography, X-rays, computed tomography, electromyography, MRI and other laboratory diagnostic methods are performed in order to detect infections, autoimmune disorders and other things.

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